Documented benefits of LGG® in immune health
By Scientific advisor Mie Kristensen
Interaction with the immune system is an important mechanism of probiotic bacteria (Bron et al. 2011). Seventy to eighty percent of the body’s immune cells are located in the gastrointestinal tract (Vighi et al. 2008), and gut microbes, including transiently colonizing probiotic bacteria, play a significant role in shaping immune responses (Macpherson et al. 2004).
There are several mechanisms with which probiotics are believed to shape the immune response:
A major component of the cell wall of LGG® has been shown to interact with several cells and receptors within the immune system, which suggests that LGG® may induce host immune responses that are beneficial for supporting the defense against pathogens (Claes et al. 2012).
Pili from LGG® can interact with immune cells and induce secretion of immune factors (Tytgat et al. 2016).
The LGG® genome contains a specific DNA motif that can stimulate immune cells if the LGG® bacteria is lysed in the intestine (Iliev et al. 2008; Iliev et al. 2005).
Clinical documentation on LGG® in immune health
Clinical documentation on the immunomodulating effects of LGG® exists for several health areas. Here we take a look at two of these health areas.
LGG® and respiratory tract health
There is evidence from human clinical studies that some probiotic bacteria support the host immune defense against pathogens in the respiratory tract. The effect of LGG® on pathogens in the respiratory tract has been evaluated in several studies. In one study children supplemented with LGG® for three months showed a better defense against pathogens in the upper respiratory tract compared to children in the placebo group (Hatakka et al. 2001). Other clinical studies have confirmed these results, showing the supportive effect of LGG® on the defense against pathogens in the upper respiratory tract (Hojsak et al. 2010a; Hojsak et al. 2010). Furthermore, LGG® in combination with Bifidobacterium, BB-12® has been tested in college students living in dormitories. Here students consuming probiotics showed better defense against virus and bacteria in the upper respiratory tract compared to students in a placebo group (Smith et al. 2013).
LGG® and systemic immune responses
Probiotics may interact with the immune system in various ways. A method to show this response is using a vaccine containing killed or attenuated pathogens, which will result in a specific immune response. Response to such a challenge can be used as an indicator of an integrated immune response (Albers et al. 2005; Burleson and Burleson 2007). LGG® has been tested in vaccine studies in adults. In one study LGG® was given in combination with a polio vaccine (De Vrese et al. 2005) and one in combination with an influenza vaccine (Davidson et al. 2011). In both studies LGG® induced an immunological response that may support a systemic protection from viruses by increasing production of neutralizing antibodies.
LGG® is the world’s most documented probiotic strain and the evidence suggests that LGG® can induce a beneficial physiological change in the immune system and support the defense against the pathogens surrounding us.
Albers R, Antoine JM, Bourdet-Sicard R et al. Br J Nutr 2005; 94:452-481
Bron A, van Baarlen P, Kleerebezem M. Nat Rev Microbiol 2011; 10(1):66-78
Burleson GR, Burleson FG. Methods 2007; 41:31-37
Claes, Ingmar JJ. et al. 2012. Microbial Cell Factories 11 (1): 161.
Davidson, L. E., A. M. Fiorino, D. R. Snydman, and P. L. Hibberd. 2011. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65 (4): 501–7.
Hatakka, Savilahti, E., Pönkä, A., Meurman, J. H., Poussa, T., Näse, L., K. 2001. BMJ 322: 1327.
Hojsak, I. et al.. 2010. Pediatrics 125 (5): e1171–77.
Hojsak, I. et al. 2010. Clinical Nutrition 29 (3): 312–16.
Iliev, I. D., M. Tohno, D. et al. 2008. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 67 (4): 370–76.
Iliev, Iliyan D., et al.. 2005. Cellular Microbiology 7 (3): 403–14.
Smith, Tracey J., Diane Rigassio-Radler, et al. 2013. British Journal of Nutrition 109 (11): 1999–2007.
Tytgat HL, van Teijlingen NH, Sullan RM et al. PLoS One 2016b; 11(3):e0151824
Vighi G, Marcucci F, Sensi L et al. Allergy and the gastrointestinal system. Clin Exp Immunol 2008; 153(Supp 1):3-6
Vrese, Michael De, et al.. 2005. European Journal of Nutrition 44 (7): 406–13.