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REFERENCES

Please find below selected references clustered in health areas and target groups. The references have been selected in accordance with generally accepted scientific criteria and studies demonstrating significant results.

 
 

Gastrointestinal health

Infants/Children

Fox, M. J., Ahuja, K. D. K., Robertson, I. K., Ball, M. J., & Eri, R. D. Can probiotic yogurt prevent diarrhoea in children on antibiotics? A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study. BMJ Open 2015, 5(1), e006474–e006474.

Grenov, B., Namusoke, H., Lanyero, B., Nabukeera-Barungi, N., Ritz, C., Mølgaard, C., … Michaelsen, K. F. Effect of probiotics on diarrhea in children with severe acute malnutrition: A randomized controlled study in Uganda. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2017, 64(3), 396–403. 

Gueimonde M, Sakata S, Kalliomaki M et al. Effect of maternal consumption of lactobacillus GG on transfer and establishment of fecal bifidobacterial microbiota in neonates. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2006; 42:604-606

Hatakka, Savilahti, E., Pönkä, A., Meurman, J. H., Poussa, T., Näse, L., K. Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres. BMJ 2001, 322, 1327.

Hojsak, I. (2017). Probiotics in Children: What Is the Evidence? Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition, 20(3), 139–146. 
 

Hojsak, I., Snovak, N., Abdović, S., Szajewska, H., Mišak, Z., & Kolaček, S. Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections in children who attend day care centers: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Nutrition 2010, 29(3), 312–316.
 

Isolauri, E., Juntunen, M., Rautanen, T., Sillanaukee, P., & Koivula, T. A human Lactobacillus strain (Lactobacillus casei sp strain GG) promotes recovery from acute diarrhea in children. Pediatrics 1991, 88(1), 90–97.
 

Mantegazza C, Molinari P, D’Auria E et al. Probiotics And Antibiotic-associated Diarrhea In Children: A Review And New Evidence On Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG During And After Antibiotic Treatment. Pharmacological Research http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2017.08.001
 

Oberhelman, R. A., Gilman, R. H., Sheen, P., Taylor, D. N., Black, R. E., Cabrera, L., … Madico, G. A placebo-controlled trial of Lactobacillus GG to prevent diarrhea in undernourished Peruvian children. Journal of Pediatrics 1999, 134(1), 15–20. 
 

Pärtty A, Kalliomäki M, Endo A et al. Compositional development of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus microbiota is linked with crying and fussing in early infancy. PLoS ONE 2012; 7(3):e32495
 

Pärtty A, Louto R, Kalliomäki M et al. Effects of Early Prebiotic and Probiotic Supplementation on Development of Gut Microbiota and Fussing and Crying in Preterm Infants: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial J Pediatr 2013; 163:1272-1277
 

Sindhu, K. N. C., Sowmyanarayanan, T. V., Paul, A., Babji, S., Ajjampur, S. S. R., Priyadarshini, S., … Kang, G. Immune response and intestinal permeability in children with acute gastroenteritis treated with lactobacillus rhamnosus GG: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2014, 58(8), 1107–1115. 
 

Szajewska H, Wanke M, Patro B. Meta-analysis: the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation for the prevention of healthcare associated diarrhoea in children. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2011; 34:1079-1087
 

Szajewska, H., Kotowska, M., Mrukowicz, J. Z., Armánska, M., & Mikolajczyk, W. Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG in prevention of nosocomial diarrhea in infants. Journal of Pediatrics 2001, 138(3), 361–365.
 

Vanderhoof, J. a, Whitney, D. B., Antonson, D. L., Hanner, T. L., Lupo, J. V, & Young, R. J. Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. The Journal of Pediatrics 1999, 135(5), 564–568.
 

Vendt N, Grunberg H, Tuure T et al. Growth during the first 6 months of life in infants using formula enriched with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG: double-blind, randomized trial. J Hum Nutr Diet 2006; 19:51-58
 

Wegh, C. A. M., Benninga, M. A., & Tabbers, M. M. (2018). Effectiveness of Probiotics in Children With Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders and Functional Constipation: A Systematic Review. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 0(0), 1. https://doi.org/10.1097/MCG.000000000000105 

 

Gastrointestinal health

Adults

Alander M, Satokari R, Korpela R et al. Persistence of colonization of human colonic mucosa by a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, after oral consumption. Appl Environ Microbiol 1999; 65:351-354

Armuzzi A, Cremonini F, Bartolozzi F et al. The effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side-effects during Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2001b; 15:163-9

Armuzzi A, Cremonini F, Ojetti V et al. Effect of Lactobacillus GG supplementation on antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side effects during Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: a pilot study. Digestion 2001a; 63:1-7
 

Cremonini F, Di Caro S, Covino M et al. Effect of Different Probiotic Preparations on Anti–Helicobacter pylori Therapy–Related Side Effects: A Parallel Group, Triple Blind, Placebo- Controlled Study. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97(11):2744-2749
 

Goldin BR, Gorbach SL, Saxelin M et al. Survival of Lactobacillus species (strain GG) in human gastrointestinal tract. Dig Dis Sci 1992; 37: 121–128
 

Gorbach SL, Chang TW, Goldin B. Successful treatment of relapsing Clostridium difficile colitis with Lactobacillus GG. Lancet 1987; 8574:1519
 

Hauser G, Salkic N, Vukelic K et al. Probiotics for standard triple Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Medicine 2015; 94:17,e685
 

Hilton E, Kolakowski P, Singeret C et al. Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG as a Diarrheal Preventive in Travelers. J Travel Med 1997; 4:41-43
 

Manley KJ, Fraenkel MB, Mayall BC et al. Probiotic treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci: a randomized controlled trial. Med J Aust 2007; 186(9):454-457
 

Oksanen, P. J., Salminen, S., Saxelin, M., Hämäläinen, P., Ihantola-Vormisto, A., Muurasniemi-Isoviita, L., … Salminen, E. Prevention of travellers’ diarrhoea by Lactobacillus GG. Annals of Medicine 1990, 22(1), 53–56. 
 

Saxelin M, Lassig A, Karjalainen H et al. Persistence of probiotic strains in the gastrointestinal tract when administrated as capsules, yoghurt, or cheese. Int J Food Microbiol 2010; 144:293-300
 

Siitonen S, Vapaatalo H, Salminen S et al. Effect of Lactobacillus GG yoghurt in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea. Ann Med 1990; 22:57-59


Immune Health

Infants/Children

Bruzzese, E., Fedele, M. C., Bruzzese, D., Viscovo, S., Giannattasio, A., Mandato, C., … Guarino, A. Randomised clinical trial: a Lactobacillus GG and micronutrient-containing mixture is effective in reducing nosocomial infections in children, vs. placebo. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2016, 44(6), 568–575. 
 

Hatakka, Savilahti, E., Pönkä, A., Meurman, J. H., Poussa, T., Näse, L., K. Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres. BMJ 2001, 322, 1327.
 

Hojsak, I. (2017). Probiotics in Children: What Is the Evidence? Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition, 20(3), 139–146. Retrieved from http://10.0.20.103/pghn.2017.20.3.139
 

Hojsak, I., Snovak, N., Abdović, S., Szajewska, H., Mišak, Z., & Kolaček, S. Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections in children who attend day care centers: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Nutrition 2010, 29(3), 312–316.
 

Hojsak, I., Abdovic, S., Szajewska, H., Milosevic, M., Krznaric, Z., & Kolacek, S. Lactobacillus GG in the Prevention of Nosocomial Gastrointestinal and Respiratory Tract Infections. Pediatrics 2010, 125(5), e1171–e1177.
 

Kumpu, M., Lehtoranta, L., Roivainen, M., Rönkko, E., Ziegler, T., Söderlund-Venermo, M., … Pitkäranta, A. The Use of the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Viral Findings in the Nasopharynx of Children Attending Day Care. Journal of Medical Virology 2013, 85, 1632–1638. 
 

Manzoni P, Lista G, Gallo E et al. Routine Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG administration in VLBW infants: A retrospective, 6-year cohort study. Early Hum Dev 2011; 87(Suppl 1):S35-38
 

Sindhu, K. N. C., Sowmyanarayanan, T. V., Paul, A., Babji, S., Ajjampur, S. S. R., Priyadarshini, S., … Kang, G. Immune response and intestinal permeability in children with acute gastroenteritis treated with lactobacillus rhamnosus GG: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2014, 58(8), 1107–1115. 
 

Trivić, I., & Hojsak, I. (2018). Use of Probiotics in the Prevention of Nosocomial Infections. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 0(0), 1. https://doi.org/10.1097/MCG.0000000000001070

 

Immune Health

Adults

Davidson LE, Fiorino AM, Snydman DR et al. Lactobacillus GG as an immune adjuvant for live-attenuated influenza vaccine in healthy adults: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 2011; 65(4):501-507
 

de Vrese M, Rautenberg P, Laue C et al. Probiotic bacteria stimulate virus-specific neutralizing antibodies following a booster polio vaccination. Eur J Nutr 2005; 44:406-413
 

Kekkonen, R. A., Vasankari, T. J., Vuorimaa, T., Haahtela, T., Julkunen, I., & Korpela, R. (2007). The effect of probiotics on respiratory infections and gastrointestinal symptoms during training in marathon runners. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 17(4), 352–363. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.17.4.352
 

Smith TJ, Rigassio-Radler D, Denmark R et al. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® on health-related quality of life in college students affected by upper respiratory infections. Br J Nutr 2013; 109:1999-2007


Immune response to allergens

Infants/Children

Berni Canani R, Nocerino R, Terrin G et al. Effect of Lactobacillus GG on tolerance acquisition in infants with cow’s milk allergy: a randomized trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2012; 129:580-582
 

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Berni Canani R, Nocerino R, Terrin G et al. Formula selection for management of children with cow’s milk allergy influences the rate of acquisition of tolerance: a prospective multicenter study. J Pediatr 2013; 163(3):771-777
 

Berni Canani, R., Di Costanzo, M., Bedogni, G., Amoroso, A., Cosenza, L., Di Scala, C., … Nocerino, R. (2017). Extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reduces the occurrence of other allergic manifestations in children with cow’s milk allergy: 3-year randomized controlled trial. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 139(6), 1906. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2016.10.050
 

Cabana, M. D., McKean, M., Caughey, A. B., Fong, L., Lynch, S., Wong, A., … Hilton, J. F. (2017). Early Probiotic Supplementation for Eczema and Asthma Prevention: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Pediatrics, 140(3), 1–9. Retrieved from http://10.0.6.6/peds.2016-3000
 

Dotterud, C. K., Storrø, O., Johnsen, R., & Øien, T. (2010). Probiotics in pregnant women to prevent allergic disease: A randomized, double-blind trial. British Journal of Dermatology, 163(3), 616–623. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2010.09889.x
 

Isolauri E, Arvola T, Sutas Y et al. Probiotics in the management of atopic eczema. Clin Exp Allergy 2000; 30:1604-1610
 

Isolauri E, Joensuu J, Suomalainen H et al. Improved immunogenicity of oral D x RRV reassortant rotavirus vaccine by Lactobacillus casei GG. Vaccine 1995; 13:310-312
 

Kalliomäki M, Salminen S, Arvilommi H et al. Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2001; 357(9262):1076-1079
 

Kalliomäki M, Salminen S, Poussa T et al. Probiotics and prevention of atopic disease: 4-year follow-up of a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2003; 361:1869-1871

Kalliomäki M, Salminen S, Poussa T, Isolauri E. Probiotics during the first 7 years of life: A cumulative risk reduction of eczema in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007; 119:1019-1021
 

Lundelin, K., Poussa, T., Salminen, S., & Isolauri, E. Long-term safety and efficacy of perinatal probiotic intervention: Evidence from a follow-up study of four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 2016, 28(2), 170–175.
 

Majamaa H, Isolauri E. Probiotics: a novel approach in the management of food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997; 99:179-185
 

Peldan, P., Kukkonen, A. K., Savilahti, E., & Kuitunen, M. (2017). Perinatal probiotics decreased eczema up to 10 years of age, but at 5-10 years, allergic rhino-conjunctivitis was increased. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 47(7), 975–979. Retrieved from http://10.0.4.87/cea.12924
 

Rø, A. D. B., Simpson, M. R., Rø, T. B., Storrø, O., Johnsen, R., Videm, V., & Øien, T. (2017). Reduced Th22 cell proportion and prevention of atopic dermatitis in infants following maternal probiotic supplementation. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 47(8), 1014.
 

Scalabrin DM, Johnston WH, Hoffman DR et al. Growth and tolerance of healthy term infants receiving hydrolyzed infant formulas supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG: randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2009; 48:734–744
 

Scalabrin DMF, Harris C, Johnston WH et al. Long-term safety assessment in children who received hydrolyzed protein formulas with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG: a 5-year follow-up. Eur J Pediatr 2017; 176:217–224
 

Simpson, M. R., Dotterud, C. K., Storrø, O., Johnsen, R., & Øien, T. (2015). Perinatal probiotic supplementation in the prevention of allergy related disease: 6 year follow up of a randomised controlled trial. BMC Dermatology, 15(1), 1–9. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12895-015-0030-1
 

Viljanen M, Savilahti E, Haahtela T et al. Probiotics in the treatment of atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome in infants: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Allergy 2005; 60:494-500


Oral Health

Infants/Children

Alanzi, A., Honkala, S., Honkala, E., Varghese, A., Tolvanen, M., & Söderling, E. (2018). Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis on gingival health, dental plaque, and periodontopathogens in adolescents: a randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial. Beneficial Microbes, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.3920/BM2017.0139
 

Glavina, D., Gorseta, K., Skrinjaric, I., Vranic, D. N., Mehulic, K., & Kozul, K. Effect of LGG yoghurt on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp. salivary counts in children. Collegium Antropologicum 2012, 36(1), 129–132.
 

Näse, L., Hatakka, K., Savilahti, E., Saxelin, M., Pönka, A., Poussa, T., … Meurman, J. H. Effect of Long–Term Consumption of a Probiotic Bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, in Milk on Dental Caries and Caries Risk in Children. Caries Research 2001, 35(6), 412–420

 

Oral Health

Adults

 

Hatakka K, Ahola AJ, Yli-Knuuttila H et al. Probiotics reduce the prevalence of oral candida in the elderly--a randomized controlled trial. J Dent Res 2007; 86:125-130